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年终盘点│再生资源市场回顾及展望

2023-01-03 13:52:05来源:环保在线 阅读量:37360

导读:再生资源产业具有显著的节能减排效应和资源循环利用效益,是国家实施绿色发展、建设生态文明的重要内容,不仅能缓解资源短缺问题,还能减轻过度开发使用对环境造成的破坏。
  再生资源是指在人类的生产、生活、科教、交通、国防等各项活动中被开发利用一次并报废后,还可反复回收加工再利用的物质资源,它包括以矿物为原料生产并报废的钢铁、有色金属稀有金属、合金、无机非金属、以及塑料、橡胶、纤维、纸张等。
 
  再生资源覆盖了商品和资源在生产和生活环节流通的全过程。从开采和生产过程的尾矿、伴生矿、工业废渣等,到流通环节的包装、运输,再到终端消费环节产生的各种废弃物。从类型来看,再生资源主要包括三大类:金属类再生资源、非金属类再生资源和废旧电子电气机械设备。
 
  再生资源产业具有显著的节能减排效应和资源循环利用效益,是国家实施绿色发展、建设生态文明的重要内容,不仅能缓解资源短缺问题,还能减轻过度开发使用对环境造成的破坏。
 
  2022年8月,工信部印发《工业领域碳达峰实施方案》,提出加强再生资源循环利用,实施废钢铁、废有色金属、废纸、废塑料、废旧轮胎等再生资源回收利用行业规范管理,鼓励符合规范条件的企业公布碳足迹。延伸再生资源精深加工产业链条,促进钢铁、铜、铝、铅、锌、镍、钴、锂、钨等高效再生循环利用。研究退役光伏组件、废弃风电叶片等资源化利用的技术路线和实施路径。围绕电器电子、汽车等产品,推行生产者责任延伸制度。推动新能源汽车动力电池回收利用体系建设。
 
  根据中国物资再生协会数据,截至2021年底,我国废钢铁、废有色金属、废塑料、废纸、废轮胎、废弃电器电子产品、报废机动车、废旧纺织品、废玻璃、废电池十个品种再生资源回收总量约为3.81亿吨,同比增长2.4%,其中废塑料、废纸、报废机动车、废旧纺织品、废电池(铅酸电池除外)的增长量均超过了10%。
 
  随着“双碳”目标的提出及实施,再生资源回收行业迎来了更广阔的发展空间。下面以废弃电器电子和废塑料回收为例:
 
  相对其他类别,废弃电器电子属于相对集中的市场,2022年废弃电器电子回收市场发展也较为显眼。
 
  国内再生资源回收主要上市企业有格林美(002340)、中再资环(600217)、启迪环境(000826)等。根据三家企业2021年公报,其废旧电子电器拆解量分别约占市场份额的10%、20%和5%。
 
  以格林美为例,多年来,格林美从攻克废旧电池回收技术开始,再到攻克电子废弃物绿色处理、报废汽车整体资源化回收技术以及动力电池材料的三元"核"技术等世界技术难题,突破性解决了中国在废旧电池、电子废弃物与报废汽车等典型废弃资源绿色处理与循环利用的关键技术难点,构建了世界先进的新能源全生命周期价值链、钴钨稀有金属资源循环再生价值链、电子废弃物与废塑料循环再生价值链等资源循环模式和新能源循环模式。据格林美信息,其年回收电子废弃物100+万吨,占我国总量的10%+。
 
  尤其是2022年以来,格林美在动力电池回收及电池材料业务方面动作频频,开始了“大展拳脚”。
 
  除废弃电器电子外,废塑料回收也拥有较为广阔的市场前景。针对塑料污染,回收是治理塑料污染最有效的手段。经过多年努力,我国已构建起较为完善的废塑料回收利用体系,目前废塑料回收与再生利用产能和产量都位居世界第一。
 
  近年来,我国废塑料的报废量持续增加,提高了部分再生塑料加工企业生产积极性,预估2022年我国废塑料的回收量将增长2100万吨,增长率或达到10.5%。
 
  加上当前“双碳”背景下,许多塑料加工企业在生产过程中提高了再生塑料的添加比例,使得再生塑料需求旺盛。同时国家和地方政策的出台也间接为废塑料回收循环利用产业发展创造了良好的外部条件。预计2023年行业将继续迎来增长。
 
  由于再生资源分类复杂、种类繁多,完整的产业链涉及回收、分拣、储存、运输、拆解、加工、再利用等诸多环节,不同产品的回收要求存在差异。目前传统高值的再生资源,如废钢铁、废有色金属、废纸、废塑料等基本形成了较完整的回收利用产业链条,但废玻璃、废纺织品等低值的可回收物,受到回收成本高、利用价值较低和利用水平有限等多种因素影响,目前缺少针对回收体系的完整设计,相应的政策标准制定、资金投入和交易平台等也亟待完善。因此,未来还需要逐步完善产业回收体系。

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